양산출장맛사지↨출장부르는법░양산출장아가씨〔양산신림 아로마 마사지〕☎【양산예약】★양산영등포 안마방ρ양산일본 안마방▪양산김원중 안마방↾양산일본인 안마방●양산조치원 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

양산출장맛사지♙예약금없는출장샵⇖양산출장아가씨〔양산장안동 마사지〕カ【양산안마방 건마】┟양산부산마사지✕양산마사지 애무♮양산안마방 단골♭양산자카르타 마사지↘양산커플 마사지 후기

The governments of more than 190 nations 완주pj 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

양산출장맛사지ク예약금없는출장샵┰양산출장아가씨〔양산마사지 맛사지〕⇙【양산안마방 후장】イ양산토렌트 마사지⇇양산포천 마사지⇩양산마사지 후기★양산포항 아가씨╅양산출장소이스홍성

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

양산출장맛사지➛출장부르는법╠ 양산출장아가씨〔양산눈붓기빼는 마사지〕◐【양산오송 마사지】☆양산광양 마사지◀양산국산 마사지┊양산탑 클래스◙양산강남 안마방 서비스↿양산여자 모텔

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

양산출장맛사지╠ 출장부르는법↕양산출장아가씨〔양산마사지 분수〕♀【양산안마방 장부】﹄양산안마방 bjマ양산문정동 마사지0양산출장샵추천﹃양산정자역 마사지◈양산오사카 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 부산전화 tumblr : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

양산출장맛사지◄출장부르는법✦양산출장아가씨〔양산동작구 안마방〕♂【양산대만 마사지】⊙양산부산마사지╯양산안마방 오일⇜양산안마방 동영상╀양산타이 안마방⇖양산용인 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 창원출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

양산출장맛사지양산황제 마사지

  • 경상북도인천 안마방
  • 양산부산 마사지 추천
  • 양산출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    양산출장맛사지☺24시출장샵⇪양산출장아가씨〔양산마사지 흥분〕ⓔ【양산안마방 단속】❖양산종아리 마사지 기계♂양산안마방 영상♘양산로미 로미 마사지 란▩양산안마방 vs 오피♦양산토요 경마

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 영동성균관대역 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장안마
    군산남양주시 안마방 구미출장안마 창원1인샵 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 포항출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    양산출장맛사지➷예약┻양산출장아가씨〔양산경성대 마사지〕♨【양산오창 안마방】⇆양산정읍 안마방ღ양산전기 마사지┺양산tumblr 안마방ェ양산fc2 일본 마사지☂양산동대구 모텔

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 광주마사지 서비스 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    양산출장맛사지卐예약금없는출장샵α양산출장아가씨〔양산부산 안마방 가격〕►【양산안마방 전화번호 저장】❤양산거제 옥포 안마방¤양산서면 안마방▩양산안마방 가격⇊양산아주동 마사지♥양산대구 출장마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장샵 .

    춘천관평동 마사지
    정선코 높아지는 마사지 카지노사이트 부산해운대 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    양산출장맛사지┓예약✕양산출장아가씨〔양산안마방 구분〕╒【양산안마방 질싸】☼양산삼계 안마방ⓔ양산정왕역 안마방┅양산안마┩양산창원 출장 숙소√양산산남동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    양산출장맛사지♖예약금없는출장샵╩양산출장아가씨〔양산월곶 마사지〕▽【양산오키나와 마사지】╅양산러브젤 마사지╟양산안마방 수위⇄양산아주대 안마방⇛양산마사지 망가ワ양산뱃살 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 곡성타이 마사지 토렌트 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    양산출장맛사지╮예약금없는출장샵❥양산출장아가씨〔양산트레이너 마사지〕ⓥ【양산덕천동 마사지】]양산역출장안마1양산이종찬 마사지⇜양산태국마사지 불법☱양산안마방 비용☐양산용암동 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    양산출장맛사지△예약┱양산출장아가씨〔양산계산동 안마방〕█【양산생리통 마사지】ハ양산에스코트 모델☼양산해운대 안마방♜양산포항 여관♨양산음경 마사지×양산여주 모텔 추천

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 안산세븐 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 군산출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 동해만남 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 구미출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    양산출장맛사지☼예약▬양산출장아가씨〔양산섹스 마사지〕▧【양산합성동 안마방】◈양산타이 안마방☀양산마사지 서비스⇪양산하당 마사지╒양산서울 출장 후기╚양산부천 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 원주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 울산출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    양산출장맛사지ク예약➺양산출장아가씨〔양산성내동 안마방〕♣【양산안중 마사지】유양산부산 사상 출장┅양산일본 보빨╪양산피파 안마방↾양산안산 안마방◎양산베이징 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    광주안마방 대기
    진주출장샵 용인대전 마사지 추천 85me.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    양산출장맛사지▷예약금없는출장샵λ양산출장아가씨〔양산강남 왁싱샵〕♥【양산마사지 전단지】☻양산건대 마사지↙양산상하이 마사지↑양산24시간 안마방↔양산해운대 모텔⊙양산안마방 스텝

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.양산출장맛사지양산천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ╌양산안마방 텀블러♯【양산행신 안마방】양산보령 마사지♖양산천안 카페✎양산쥬니공주 안마방↿양산엄태웅 안마방ψadko.xyz출장부르는법양산뱃살 마사지▨양산서울 안마방 추천⇖〈양산모유수유 마사지〉양산스웨 디시 마사지 란↠양산신중동 마사지╔양산해수욕 마사지✌양산조건 카페♨양산출장맛사지구례감성 마사지양산50대 안마방┗양산등 마사지 방법υ﹝양산폼롤러 마사지﹞양산타이 출장 마사지☪양산남자 전립선 마사지⇛양산귀두 마사지☃양산일본 마사지 야동╬ 양산중국 우한 마사지↮양산봉천 안마방▶﹛양산사상구 마사지﹜양산코 마사지❃양산광주 스타 안마방☯양산출장업소◦양산남성 마사지♔양산안마방 검색↝양산여성전용 마사지♟「양산세종시 안마방」양산까치산 안마방ε양산마포구 안마방►양산안마방 시간⇩양산발바닥 마사지☏양산안마방 2:1♐양산양평 마사지╒<양산창동 마사지>양산마사지 카페✍양산둔산동 엘 마사지➺양산콜걸후기♖양산만짜이 마사지♪예약금없는출장샵시흥여수 마사지예약금없는출장샵양산광주 안마방 추천◊양산다낭 마사지➻《양산aktkwl》양산평촌 안마방═양산베트남 마사지κ양산19금 마사지▫양산서해부 마사지☜양산출장맛사지양산출장맛사지xlsx.xyz양산배 마사지양산여성 출장 마사지양산용산역 마사지양산50대 안마방양산출장맛사지양산양산 마사지↓양산안마방 못쌈◁《양산제주도 안마방》양산세종시 마사지»양산안마방 마무리♪양산안마방 사정↷양산전화 tumblr↮충청남도안마방 정액

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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