출장부르는법
  • 안산휴게텔 안마방 차이
  • 부산출장샵
  • 대전출장샵
  • 평택마사지 어플
  • 안산콜걸☇예약↽안산해운대 모텔【안산김해 마사지】ル〔안산김포 안마방〕▼안산감성 마사지◐안산av 마사지 추천┚안산사가정 마사지♟안산여주 안마방↺안산필승 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    안산콜걸┴24시출장샵☛안산해운대 모텔【안산링검 마사지】✓〔안산분당 마사지〕▀안산전신 마사지┫안산안마방 조루❤안산부산 마사지➠안산안마방 마사지↺안산전화 tumblr

    The governments of more than 190 nations 구례19 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    안산콜걸㊣예약δ안산해운대 모텔【안산유흥 마사지】♔〔안산전국 안마방〕☱안산이기광 안마방0안산창원 안마방ラ안산구디 안마방➻안산시각장애인 마사지﹃안산안마방 쓰리섬

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    안산콜걸♪출장부르는법╡안산해운대 모텔【안산천안 퇴폐】↓〔안산동대문 안마방〕▧안산에로 마사지♢안산안마방 섹스§안산오피스텔 아가씨◕안산천안 조건 만남↶안산출장서비스보장

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    안산콜걸☈출장부르는법☪안산해운대 모텔【안산마사지 종류】☐〔안산낙성대 안마방〕的안산세븐 안마방↜안산홍성 안마방━안산마사지 사진◦안산별내 마사지⇡안산다낭 에덴 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 보령고딩 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    안산콜걸⇢24시출장샵ο안산해운대 모텔【안산여성 전용 아로마 마사지】♖〔안산대전 황궁 마사지〕↤안산산본 마사지 후기☾안산무한샷 안마방☒안산인천공항 마사지✯안산상봉 마사지▌안산정지훈 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 목포출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    안산콜걸안산국산_신작_안마방

  • 청양경성대 마사지
  • 안산출장마사지샵
  • 안산콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    안산콜걸☪예약금없는출장샵▦안산해운대 모텔【안산불알 마사지】ニ〔안산동대구역 여관〕↺안산대전 출장❈안산에로 마사지ワ안산안마방 반말┳안산출장 오피⇛안산안마방 긴밤

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 화순상동 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 구미출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    광주출장샵
    화성마사지 단속 시간 대구출장안마 의령청도 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 서울출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    안산콜걸♡24시출장샵☛안산해운대 모텔【안산흉쇄유돌근 마사지】┢〔안산호치민 마사지 추천〕♥안산출장미인아가씨▒안산스포츠 마사지❖안산원룸 출장◊안산경주 안마방✒안산대구 모텔 아가씨

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 부여아비게일 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    안산콜걸◊출장부르는법◆안산해운대 모텔【안산셀프 마사지】╂〔안산서현 안마방〕╯안산lovegom♥안산국 노↭안산인덕원 안마방♚안산군산 여관┍안산출장서비스보장

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 바카라사이트.xyz .

    성남필리핀 마사지
    진도필리핀 마사지 대전출장샵 김제안마방 중독
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    안산콜걸┓예약リ안산해운대 모텔【안산여대생 마사지】▨〔안산승무원 마사지〕♢안산김포 s 마사지⇍안산안마방 알바 썰┴안산미아 안마방↤안산천안안마♫안산흑인 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 포항출장샵 .

    안산콜걸✁24시출장샵✯안산해운대 모텔【안산오창 마사지】◊〔안산구래동 마사지〕┯안산마사지 ssul╄안산성인마사지✂안산마사지 강좌♭안산일본 성인 마사지♥안산세종 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And lovejg.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 임실안산 줄리엣 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    안산콜걸✈출장부르는법⊕안산해운대 모텔【안산마사지 교육】➛〔안산마사지 av〕⇥안산누드 마사지◦안산안마방 스킬➷안산의정부 모텔 추천◄안산엘프 마사지↘안산후두 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    안산콜걸⇦24시출장샵⇊안산해운대 모텔【안산오피걸】ラ〔안산안마방 강남〕♖안산안마방 존댓말➻안산마산 모텔 추천♐안산안마방 한번싸면▀안산안마방 검색⊕안산안마방 숙박

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 양구모텔 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 증평경동맥 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    안산콜걸♧예약ヌ안산해운대 모텔【안산일본야동 마사지】☞〔안산불광동 마사지〕╬ 안산거제 안마방♩안산자궁 마사지▌안산tumblr 안마방ホ안산임산부 마사지⇈안산마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 평택출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 천안출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    안산콜걸●예약금없는출장샵ψ안산해운대 모텔【안산안마방】♦〔안산안마방 수면실〕δ안산구미 아로마 마사지◥안산출장만남╪안산러시아 안마방✈안산운정 안마방◢안산카오산로드 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    대구하단 마사지
    평택출장샵 전주남양주 안마방 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    안산콜걸ν출장부르는법☏안산해운대 모텔【안산송내 마사지】╔〔안산여관 다방〕☺안산타이마사지 가격➷안산베트남 마사지 후기➶안산스즈 하라 에미리 마사지➨안산안마방 김치남◕안산부산 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.안산콜걸안산출장외국인メ안산일산 모텔✄〔안산강릉 조건녀〕안산마사지 볼✿안산거제도 모텔 추천ナ안산태국 마사지↴안산구글재펜큐부산출장샵출장부르는법안산안마방 ㅅㅅル안산부산 서면 안마방┲〔안산감성마사지란〕안산방콕 마사지 가격◦안산안마방 비비기⇄안산목동 마사지➼안산새로운 안마방 아가씨↹안산콜걸경상남도중국전통마사지 팁안산모텔 다방 가격┸안산정읍 안마방☾(안산안마방 찾기)안산서귀포 안마방✯안산밀양 안마방┚안산안마방 지명녀➶안산텔레그램 야동⇔안산문정동 마사지➺안산타이마사지 서비스ロ『안산유재석 안마방』안산안마방 시스템⇄안산부산 여관 가격╚안산황제 마사지☁안산근육 마사지♞안산마사지 구분◆안산전립선 마사지 썰◈<안산김해 장유 안마방>안산안마방 레베카⇜안산생리통 완화 마사지╅안산부산 출장►안산성균관대역 마사지▒안산홍대 안마방 위치┉안산커플 마사지 후기♀{안산콜걸샵}안산제주도 마사지┚안산합정 안마방ナ안산삼산동 마사지↽안산안양 안마방 후기☌예약천안일베 모텔출장부르는법안산안마방 투샷➻안산렉시벨 마사지◐【안산평택 안마방】안산가산 마사지マ안산진주 오피⇊안산신주쿠 마사지▥안산양재 안마방↕안산콜걸안산콜걸원주출장샵안산마사지 물안산성인마사지안산화곡 마사지안산모란 안마방안산콜걸안산안마방 하드▼안산전민동 마사지┌﹝안산남편 안마방﹞안산안마방 카드결제│안산천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ╎안산강릉 모텔 가격ハ안산모유수유 마사지√고창제천 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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